Women’s Health Bulletin

Published by: Kowsar

The Relationship Between Contraceptive Methods and Common Vaginal Infections

Sholeh Shahinfar 1 , * and Bizhan Nemanpour 2
Authors Information
1 Lecturer, Department of Midwifery, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Kerman Branch, Islamic Azad University, Kerman, Iran
2 Assistant Professor, Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran
Article information
  • Women's Health Bulletin: April 2017, 4 (2); e40793
  • Published Online: November 15, 2016
  • Article Type: Research Article
  • Received: July 14, 2016
  • Revised: October 17, 2016
  • Accepted: November 8, 2016
  • DOI: 10.17795/whb.40793

To Cite: Shahinfar S, Nemanpour B. The Relationship Between Contraceptive Methods and Common Vaginal Infections, Women Health Bull. 2017 ; 4(2):e40793. doi: 10.17795/whb.40793.

Copyright © 2016, Health Policy Research Center, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/) which permits copy and redistribute the material just in noncommercial usages, provided the original work is properly cited.
1. Background
2. Objectives
3. Methods
4. Results
5. Discussion
  • 1. Ryan KJ, Berkowitz RS, Barbieri RL. Kistner's gynecology and women's health (in Persian). 2006; : 562-6
  • 2. Hainer BL, Gibson MV. Vaginitis. Am Fam Physician. 2011; 83(7): 807-15[PubMed]
  • 3. Hacker NF, Moor JG. Essential of obstetrics and gynecology. 2005; : 298-303
  • 4. Ryckman KK, Williams SM, Kalinka J. Correlations of selected vaginal cytokine levels with pregnancy-related traits in women with bacterial vaginosis and mycoplasmas. J Reprod Immunol. 2008; 78(2): 172-80[DOI][PubMed]
  • 5. Leitich H, Kiss H. Asymptomatic bacterial vaginosis and intermediate flora as risk factors for adverse pregnancy outcome. Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol. 2007; 21(3): 375-90[DOI][PubMed]
  • 6. Smart S, Singal A, Mindel A. Social and sexual risk factors for bacterial vaginosis. Sex Transm Infect. 2004; 80(1): 58-62[PubMed]
  • 7. Mania-Pramanik J, Kerkar SC, Salvi VS. Bacterial vaginosis: a cause of infertility? Int J STD AIDS. 2009; 20(11): 778-81[DOI][PubMed]
  • 8. Spear GT, St John E, Zariffard MR. Bacterial vaginosis and human immunodeficiency virus infection. AIDS Res Ther. 2007; 4: 25[DOI][PubMed]
  • 9. Sobel JD. Vulvovaginal candidosis. Lancet. 2007; 369(9577): 1961-71[DOI][PubMed]
  • 10. Achkar JM, Fries BC. Candida infections of the genitourinary tract. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2010; 23(2): 253-73[DOI][PubMed]
  • 11. Rathod SD, Klausner JD, Krupp K, Reingold AL, Madhivanan P. Epidemiologic features of Vulvovaginal Candidiasis among reproductive-age women in India. Infect Dis Obstet Gynecol. 2012; 2012: 859071[DOI][PubMed]
  • 12. Swygard H, Sena AC, Hobbs MM, Cohen MS. Trichomoniasis: clinical manifestations, diagnosis and management. Sex Transm Infect. 2004; 80(2): 91-5[PubMed]
  • 13. Cu-Uvin S, Ko H, Jamieson DJ, Hogan JW, Schuman P, Anderson J, et al. Prevalence, incidence, and persistence or recurrence of trichomoniasis among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive women and among HIV-negative women at high risk for HIV infection. Clin Infect Dis. 2002; 34(10): 1406-11[DOI][PubMed]
  • 14. Chesson HW, Blandford JM, Pinkerton SD. Estimates of the annual number and cost of new HIV infections among women attributable to trichomoniasis in the United States. Sex Transm Dis. 2004; 31(9): 547-51[PubMed]
  • 15. McClelland RS, Sangare L, Hassan WM, Lavreys L, Mandaliya K, Kiarie J, et al. Infection with Trichomonas vaginalis increases the risk of HIV-1 acquisition. J Infect Dis. 2007; 195(5): 698-702[DOI][PubMed]
  • 16. Fritz MA, Sperrof L. Clinical gynecologic endocrinology and Infertility (in Persian). 2004; : 711
  • 17. Salahzehi H, Khojasteh F, Nazarpour S. Mother and newborn health nursing (in Persian). 2008; : 199
  • 18. Berek JS. Berek and novak's gynecology (in Persian). 2012; : 522-6
  • 19. Valiani M, Zolfaghari M, Nazemi M, Pirhadi M, Ebrahimian S. The relationship between family planning methods, individual hygiene, and fertility with vaginal infections among the women referring to selected health centers in Isfahan city. Iran J Nurs Midwifery Res. 2011; 16(1): 83-92[PubMed]
  • 20. Akbarzadeh M, Bonyadpoure B, Pacshir K, Mohagheghzadeh A. Causes and clinical symptoms of vaginal candidiasis in patients referring to selective clinics of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences (2009). Arak Med Univ J. 2010; 13(3): 12-20
  • 21. Lan PT, Lundborg CS, Phuc HD, Sihavong A, Unemo M, Chuc NT, et al. Reproductive tract infections including sexually transmitted infections: a population-based study of women of reproductive age in a rural district of Vietnam. Sex Transm Infect. 2008; 84(2): 126-32[DOI][PubMed]
  • 22. Namazi A, Sahati F, Adibpour M, Mazloomi AS, Babapour J. Prevalence and predisposing factors to candidiasis infection in women supported by health centers of tabriz, 2004. SSUJ. 2007; 15(1): 54-60
  • 23. Calzolari E, Masciangelo R, Milite V, Verteramo R. Bacterial vaginosis and contraceptive methods. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2000; 70(3): 341-6[PubMed]
  • 24. Kalantari N, Ghaffari S, Bayani M. Trichomonas, Candida, and gardnerella in cervical smears of Iranian women for cancer screening. N Am J Med Sci. 2014; 6(1): 25-9[DOI][PubMed]
  • 25. Gharekhani P, Sadatian SA. Gynecology CMMD. 2001; : 253-9
  • 26. Ertabaklar H, Caner A, Doskaya M, Demirtas LO, Toz SO, Ertug S, et al. [Comparison of polymerase chain reaction with wet mount and culture methods for the diagnosis of trichomoniasis]. Turkiye Parazitol Derg. 2011; 35(1): 1-5[DOI][PubMed]
  • 27. Mascarenhas RE, Machado MS, Costa e Silva BF, Pimentel RF, Ferreira TT, Leoni FM, et al. Prevalence and risk factors for bacterial vaginosis and other vulvovaginitis in a population of sexually active adolescents from Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. Infect Dis Obstet Gynecol. 2012; 2012: 378640[DOI][PubMed]
  • 28. Bolbol-Haghighi N, Ebrahimi H, Delvarianzadeh M. Evaluation and comparison of clinical and para-clinical diagnosis of trichomonas vaginitis in women refered to Shahrood city health care centries. Knowledge Health J Shahrood Univ Med Sc. 2008; 3(1): 1-6
  • 29. Mulu W, Yimer M, Zenebe Y, Abera B. Common causes of vaginal infections and antibiotic susceptibility of aerobic bacterial isolates in women of reproductive age attending at Felegehiwot referral Hospital, Ethiopia: a cross sectional study. BMC women's health. 2015; 15(1): 1
  • 30. Bahram A, Hamid B, Zohre T. Prevalence of bacterial vaginosis and impact of genital hygiene practices in non-pregnant women in zanjan, iran. Oman Med J. 2009; 24(4): 288-93[DOI][PubMed]
  • 31. Yang XL, Yang HX, Duan T, He J, Sun LZ, Yu YH, et al. [Vaginal microflora and relevant factors in puerperium]. Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke Za Zhi. 2009; 44(7): 496-9[PubMed]
  • 32. Llovera Suarez V, Perurena Lancha MR. [Identification of yeasts in pap smears: clinical characteristics associated with candidiasis]. Rev Cubana Med Trop. 2004; 56(1): 21-5[PubMed]
  • 33. Baris ,I, Arman Karakaya Y. Effects of contraception on cervical cytology: data from Mardin City. Turk Patoloji Derg. 2013; 29(2): 117-21[DOI][PubMed]
  • 34. Ma L, Lv Z, Su J, Wang J, Yan D, Wei J, et al. Consistent condom use increases the colonization of Lactobacillus crispatus in the vagina. PLoS One. 2013; 8(7)[DOI][PubMed]
  • 35. Wang LY, OuYang L, Tong F, Zhang XJ, Li XD, Wang CC, et al. The effect of contraceptive methods on reproductive tract infections risk: a cross-sectional study having a sample of 52,481 women. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2016; 294(6): 1249-56[DOI][PubMed]
  • 36. Patel V, Weiss HA, Mabey D, West B, D'Souza S, Patil V, et al. The burden and determinants of reproductive tract infections in India: a population based study of women in Goa, India. Sex Transm Infect. 2006; 82(3): 243-9[DOI][PubMed]
Creative Commons License Except where otherwise noted, this work is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 4.0 International License .

Search Relations:



Create Citiation Alert
via Google Reader

Readers' Comments