Women’s Health Bulletin

Published by: Kowsar

Women Are More at Risk of Poor Mental Health: Mental Health of Spanish Nurses Measured by the GHQ-12

Pilar Sanchez-Lopez 1 , * , Ana Isabel Saavedra-San Roman 2 , Virginia Dresch 3 , Lorena Garcia-Quintans 4 and Irene Rodrigo-Holgado 1
Authors Information
1 Complutense University of Madrid, Madrid, Spain
2 University Hospital of Getafe, Madrid, Spain
3 Federal Fluminense University, Niteroi, Brazil
4 Asturian Public Health Service, Madrid, Spain
Article information
  • Women's Health Bulletin: April 01, 2016, 3 (2); e29603
  • Published Online: March 26, 2016
  • Article Type: Research Article
  • Received: May 26, 2015
  • Revised: August 5, 2015
  • Accepted: December 6, 2015
  • DOI: 10.17795/whb-29603

To Cite: Sanchez-Lopez P, Saavedra-San Roman A I, Dresch V, Garcia-Quintans L, Rodrigo-Holgado I. Women Are More at Risk of Poor Mental Health: Mental Health of Spanish Nurses Measured by the GHQ-12, Women Health Bull. 2016 ; 3(2):e29603. doi: 10.17795/whb-29603.

Copyright © 2016, Health Policy Research Center, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/) which permits copy and redistribute the material just in noncommercial usages, provided the original work is properly cited.
1. Background
2. Objectives
3. Patients and Methods
4. Results
5. Discussion
  • 1. Mental health: a state of well-being. 2014;
  • 2. Govender I, Mutunzi E, Okonta H. Stress among medical doctors working in public hospitals of the Ngaka Modiri Molema district (Mafikeng health region), North West province, South Africa. South African J Psy. 2012; 18(2): 42-6
  • 3. Lam T. Aggression exposure and mental health among nurses. Adv Ment Health J. 2002; 1(2): 89-100[DOI]
  • 4. Deschamps Perdomo A, Olivares Román SB, Rosa Zabala K, Asunsolo del Barco A. Influencia de los turnos de trabajo y las guardias nocturnas en la aparicion del Sindrome de Burnout en medicos y enfermeras. Med Seg del J. 2011; 57(224): 224-41[DOI]
  • 5. Bonet-Porqueras R, Moline-Pallares A, Olona-Cabases M, Gil-Mateu E, Bonet-Notario P, Les-Morell E, et al. [The night shift: a risk factor for health and quality of life in nursing staff]. Enferm Clin. 2009; 19(2): 76-82[DOI][PubMed]
  • 6. Rios-Risquez MI, Godoy-Fernandez C. [Association between occupational satisfaction and perceived general health in emergency nurses]. Enferm Clin. 2008; 18(3): 134-41[PubMed]
  • 7. Prosser D, Johnson S, Kuipers E, Szmukler G, Bebbington P, Thornicroft G. Mental health, "burnout' and job satisfaction among hospital and community-based mental health staff. Br J Psychiatry. 1996; 169(3): 334-7[PubMed]
  • 8. Mao ZH, Zhao XD. The effects of social connections on self-rated physical and mental health among internal migrant and local adolescents in Shanghai, China. BMC Public Health. 2012; 12: 97[DOI][PubMed]
  • 9. Conry MC, Morgan K, Curry P, McGee H, Harrington J, Ward M, et al. The clustering of health behaviours in Ireland and their relationship with mental health, self-rated health and quality of life. BMC Public Health. 2011; 11: 692[DOI][PubMed]
  • 10. Welsh D. Predictors of depressive symptoms in female medical-surgical hospital nurses. Issues Ment Health Nurs. 2009; 30(5): 320-6[DOI][PubMed]
  • 11. Lin SH, Liao WC, Chen MY, Fan JY. The impact of shift work on nurses' job stress, sleep quality and self-perceived health status. J Nurs Manag. 2014; 22(5): 604-12[DOI][PubMed]
  • 12. Gandhi S, Sangeetha G, Ahmed N, Chaturvedi SK. Somatic symptoms, perceived stress and perceived job satisfaction among nurses working in an Indian psychiatric hospital. Asian J Psychiatr. 2014; 12: 77-81[DOI][PubMed]
  • 13. McHugh MD, Kutney-Lee A, Cimiotti JP, Sloane DM, Aiken LH. Nurses' widespread job dissatisfaction, burnout, and frustration with health benefits signal problems for patient care. Health Aff (Millwood). 2011; 30(2): 202-10[DOI][PubMed]
  • 14. Sanchez-Lopez M, Saavedra A, Dresch V, Liminana-Gras R. Conformity to Traditional Gender Norms in a Feminized Occupation: The Influence on Health Behaviors. Health Aff J. 2014; 6(20): 2775-89[DOI]
  • 15. Sanchez-Lopez MP, Lopez-Garcia JJ, Dresch V, Corbalan J. Sociodemographic, psychological and health-related factors associated with poor mental health in Spanish women and men in midlife. Women Health. 2008; 48(4): 445-65[DOI][PubMed]
  • 16. Encuesta Nacional de Salud 2011-2012. 2013;
  • 17. Sanchez-Lopez Mdel P, Dresch V. The 12-Item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12): reliability, external validity and factor structure in the Spanish population. Psicothema. 2008; 20(4): 839-43[PubMed]
  • 18. Goldberg DP, Gater R, Sartorius N, Ustun TB, Piccinelli M, Gureje O, et al. The validity of two versions of the GHQ in the WHO study of mental illness in general health care. Psychol Med. 1997; 27(1): 191-7[PubMed]
  • 19. Cuellar-Flores I, Sanchez-Lopez MP, Liminana-Gras RM, Colodro-Conde L. The GHQ-12 for the assessment of psychological distress of family caregivers. Behav Med. 2014; 40(2): 65-70[DOI][PubMed]
  • 20. Brabete AC. El Cuestionario de Salud General de 12 items (GHQ-12): estudio de traduccion y adaptacion de la version rumana. Revista Psicologica J. 2014; 37(1): 9-27
  • 21. Saavedra-San Roman AI. Relacion entre género y salud en los profesionales de enfermería. Doctoral Dissertation. 2013;
  • 22. Tucker SJ, Harris MR, Pipe TB, Stevens SR. Nurses' ratings of their health and professional work environments. AAOHN J. 2010; 58(6): 253-67[DOI][PubMed]
  • 23. Holman GT, Thomas RE, Brown KC. A health comparison of Alabama nurses versus US, UK, and Canadian normative populations. J Ortho Nurs. 2009; 13(4): 172-82[DOI]
  • 24. Escriba-Aguir V, Artazcoz L, Perez-Hoyos S. [Effect of psychosocial work environment and job satisfaction on burnout syndrome among specialist physicians]. Gac Sanit. 2008; 22(4): 300-8[PubMed]
  • 25. Sanchez Lopez MP, Aparicio Garcia ME, Dresch V. [Anxiety, self-esteem and self-perceived satisfaction as predictors of health: differences between men and women]. Psicothema. 2006; 18(3): 584-90[PubMed]
Creative Commons License Except where otherwise noted, this work is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 4.0 International License .

Search Relations:



Create Citiation Alert
via Google Reader

Readers' Comments