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What is pigmentation removal? This is a common question many people have. Pigmentation removal occurs when the skin’s natural pigment cells are removed, which can result in fading of the skin color.

The skin then becomes more translucent and less noticeable because of this loss in pigment cells. There are quite a few different treatments that can be done to remove these cells from the body, such as laser therapy, chemical peels, and microdermabrasion. These treatments vary depending on what you’re looking for and what your needs may be. Read more about them here!

What Can Cause Pigmentation?

Pigmentation can occur anywhere in the body, from your hands to your face. Some people may naturally have more pigment than others due to their skin type or ethnicity. It’s a common occurrence and is nothing to be concerned about unless it becomes excessive or affects your appearance. Pigmentation isn’t always considered a “disease” but rather an expression of normal skin processes that give rise to abnormal coloration.

There are many things that can cause pigmentation to appear in the skin. The main culprits causing this tattoo-like discoloration are sun damage or genetics, which is why it’s so important to protect your skin from them. Other examples of what may cause pigment spots include:

Freckles

You’re probably most familiar with these small splotches if you have a fair complexion; they tend to mostly show up on lighter complexions and those living closer to the equator. They usually occur during childhood due to overexposure, but then gradually fade away by adulthood.

Acne Scars

A lot of people are concerned about getting rid of their pimples and the scars they leave behind. These can be very embarrassing and make you want to hide away from the world.

Sweet’s Syndrome

This rare disease is an inherited overproduction of melanin in certain areas of the body causing large brown spots on the face or other regions such as arms and legs. It generally affects young children and may recede naturally after puberty. However, if it doesn’t go away, treatment will need to be administered by a doctor. Click here for more info about Sweet’s syndrome!

Liver Disease

Pigmentation may occur on the face as a result of liver disease. The skin can become darker and have small, brown spots in various areas such as the forehead, cheeks, nose, and neck.

Rosacea

This common condition results in facial flushing (redness) after exposure to different types of stimulation such as alcohol consumption, spicy foods or hot temperatures. It’s most prominent in fair-skinned people who have light hair and blue eyes but can also affect men and women of all ethnicities. One way to avoid these red blotches is to wear sunscreen regularly!

Sun Damage

UV rays are a major cause of pigmentation since they can increase melanin production if your skin isn’t properly protected from them. Too much sun exposure can lead to things like sunburn, age spots and even skin cancer down the road!

What Can Be Done?

There are many ways to reduce pigmentation in the body that treat different conditions and causes. However your doctor will be able to determine which pigmentation removal treatment would work best for you. You should be in the hands of an experienced dermatologist to remove your unwanted pigmentation. It’s important to note that these treatments may need to be done over several years before you can see a significant difference.

Non-Invasive Treatments for Pigmentation:

Pigmentation can be treated in a few ways with laser therapy, like Pico Laser, depending on the location and color of the spots. Some common types of pigmentation such as freckles or liver spots may be removed over time by using lasers that target melanin (the brown pigment in your skin).

Lasers work by sending short pulses of light energy to destroy targeted cells without affecting surrounding tissue. The number of treatments needed will vary depending on where the spots are located and their intensity. For example, one treatment alone can reduce freckles while four or more treatments are usually required for age spots. In general, it takes 3-4 treatments to get the desired results. .

In addition, lasers can also be used for brightening your skin and removing age spots or dark freckles that are slightly darker than your normal skin tone. To do this, the laser first places targeted pulses of light on the pigmentation in order to remove them while leaving surrounding tissue intact.

Intentionally refusing hot or too cold stuff like a bite of ice cream because of that constant feeling of pain and discomfort after? Well, it’s a sign to start thinking about going to your dentist! Although this pain may be caused by many factors, there is a considerable probability of having teeth sensitivity. 

When it comes to tooth sensitivity, it’s better to have it checked immediately because what has started as a temporary problem only on one tooth may grow and become a chronic problem that affects several teeth. Dental hypersensitivity is the teeth’ response to certain stimuli usually accompanied by pain and/or discomfort. 

Sensitive teeth usually tend to react to hot and/or cold stuff; however, cases have been seen where sweet and sour foods, as well as cold air, have been the irritants. 

If caught out in the early phase, the tooth hypersensitivity can be easily treated with a toothpaste specially designed for this kind of issue like the Mi Paste Tooth Sensitivity. Now let’s see what the symptoms of tooth sensitivity are and what we can do to prevent the condition. 

Tooth Sensitivity Symptoms

Vital to note – that as soon you encounter any of the symptoms below or any sudden change in your mouth, you have to make a dentist appointment. Also, if you experience cavities symptoms or potential root damage, it’s vital to seek specialized dental help. 

Some of these symptoms may include:

  • Spontaneous tooth pain 
  • Surface staining 
  • Pain when biting or chewing 
  • Pain when eating something sweet 
  • Gum sensitivity 
  • Receding gums
  • Exposed tooth roots

Prevent Damage

It would be best to work on preventing the issue rather than later on curing a disease. Here are some ways we have found to destroy our teeth’ health. 

Brushing Too Hard

Using a hard-bristled toothbrush and brushing your teeth too hard, and applying excess pressure to get “cleaner” teeth might be something we all have done and hasn’t ended well for anyone. 

Take Care of Your Tooth Enamel

Brushing with a hard-bristled brush will eventually wear out the tooth enamel and will expose the dentil layer of the tooth itself. This damaged tooth will be more sensitive to external changes and influence, irritating the tooth’s nerve and causing pain. 

So what is the right way to brush your teeth? Let’s start with one of the most important things first – the right kind of toothbrush. 

You should use a soft-bristled toothbrush and brush your teeth under an angle of 45 degrees while slowly working out your way from the tooth to the gum. This way, you’ll clean your enamel without damaging it. 

Watch Out For What You Eat

Acidic fruits and junk food like soda, foods high in sugar and carbs, will attack the enamel of your teeth, causing enamel damage, and with that, tooth damage.

While some food is bad for your overall dental health, others can actually repair the damage caused by moisturizing your mouth, which helps fight acid and bacteria. Although many dairy products like cheese, milk, and plain yogurt can be found on this list, fiber-rich veggies and fruits are here to help too.

Treatment

As soon as the dental specialist has figured out the issue and you’re diagnosed with tooth sensitivity, the dentist can treat your condition. 

Usually, it’s started with proper dental care using a soft-bristle toothbrush and a toothpaste suitable for sensitive teeth. Also, it’s recommended to floss twice a day. 

However, if this therapy doesn’t work, there are other ways this condition can be dealt with like: 

  • Fluoride gel 
  • Covering exposed roots with fillings
  • Sealants
  • Desensitizing toothpaste is not used with a toothbrush but on its own
  • A prescribed mouthguard that will protect your teeth from grinding 
  • The ultimate solution, if nothing above works, is to have a root canal procedure of the tooth

Conclusion

The toughest part is accepting that something is happening in your mouth and actually seeking out a specialist’s help. Once you have done that, things get a lot easier because now you know where the problem is coming from, and the solution isn’t far behind.

You can do the most important thing for yourself and for your health – ask for help and not be shy or feel ashamed because you haven’t been to a regular dentist appointment in years. Ignoring your dental care is the worst decision you can make, not just because the teeth are one of the first things one sees in someone but because teeth’ nerves are directly related to the brain. 

When blood flow is cut off from a part of the brain, a stroke occurs. Strokes are either ischemic or hemorrhagic in nature and while family history of strokes as well as older age are factors, there are quite a few things that you can do to prevent them from occurring. Read more about them here.

  • Lower blood pressure: The foremost reason of strokes is high blood pressure. If your blood pressure is above 130/80, you are suffering from hypertension. This increases your chance of having a stroke 6 fold. High blood pressure weakens arteries, making them prone to bursting, causing a hemorrhaging stroke. Consult your doctor for the right medication and also incorporate lifestyle changes like healthy eating and regular exercise.
  • Quit smoking: The risk of a stroke is doubled when you are a regular smoker. The nicotine raises blood pressure and the CO present in smoke will lower oxygen levels in your blood. You need to have a frank conversation with your doctor about realistic ways to quit smoking with nicotine patches and counseling being viable options.
  • Managing the heart: Atrial fibrillation or irregular heartbeat in layman’s language is the cause of strokes brought about by blood clots. If this clot travels to your brain, a stroke is likely. There are medical procedures, medication, as well as surgery that can help to get the normal rhythm back to your heart. If you experience breath shortness and heart flutters, consult your doctor immediately.
  • Quit drinking: Excessive alcohol intake will increase your blood pressure and the triglyceride levels. If you are a man, do not have more than two drinks a day, and one drink for women. Drinking in excess will likely cause atrial fibrillation and binge drinking will also contribute to an irregular heartbeat.
  • Diabetes control: If you have diabetes, you are 2-4 times more likely to have a stroke. Unmanaged diabetes will lead to clots and fatty deposits in the blood vessels. That has the effect of cutting off the brain’s blood supply. Check blood sugar levels regularly, medications should be regularly taken and do visit your doctor every month.
  • Exercising: If you are a couch potato, you are going to be prone to diabetes, obesity, high cholesterol as well as high blood pressure, all of which are a trigger for a stroke. Try to work out for 30 minutes a day for 5 days a week. However you have to have a talk with a doctor before you take to exercising as a way to prevent a stroke.
  • Healthy eating: Eating healthy foods will lower the chances of a stroke, so go heavy on vegetables and fresh fruits, as well as high fiber and lean proteins. Do not consume saturated and trans fats, these have the tendency to clog your arteries. Also avoid foods that are processed and limit your salt intake.
  • Take medicines regularly: If you have had a stroke before, do not ever forget to take the medicines that your doctor has prescribed. If you stop taking your meds, your chances of having a second stroke rise.

Follow these tips to have a healthy life without the risks of a debilitating or even fatal stroke.

White dazzling teeth enhance your smile. Gleaming teeth are very attractive and appealing, and thus every person prefers to apply all kinds of ways to keep their teeth look impressively white.

They do regular brushing, flossing and even visit their dentist every few months. However, sometimes all these ways aren’t fully satisfactory as there are valid reasons that have negative effects on your teeth resulting in its discoloration. People do use teeth whitening products bought over the counter and from online shops.

Now, you can enjoy shining teeth sitting comfortably at home, as there are effective solutions for you from popular sellers like Euro White. The reviews of their products posted by their users will surely compel you try this best UK teeth whitening remedy.

The new methods applied to brighten your teeth-

  • You don’t have to visit your cosmetic dentist anymore to dazzle your teeth. This is because in the comfort of your home can have the treatment done by a specialist. They will conduct a full checking of your oral health to identify the causes of discoloration and loss of enamel shining quality.
  • The process of treatment begins by applying whitening gel to be activated with LED light. Within half an hour the whole procedure is completed and after an hour you can observe the desired result.
  • Post-treatment for few days you can’t eat or drink any stainable food materials. If possible, eating eatables white in colour like pasta, fishes, tofu, mushroom and potatoes will be a better choice.
  • You get a complimentary kit to use at home regularly. It has a whitening pen having less proportion of hydrogen peroxide to maintain the whiteness of your teeth.

There are other effective methods to keep your teeth perfectly shining-

  • Crest 3d white solution or toothpaste- It has the potentiality to remove almost all stains of any kind within an hour after brushing.
  • Crest teeth whitening strips– It has enamel safe formula and the result can be seen within a day. Some strips have a mint taste, thus its user won’t feel discomfort while having it in their mouth. The strips are patterned like the shape of your teeth, thus easy to apply and pull out.

Know how all kind of strips used for whitening the teeth works-

Whitening strips are more popular as they don’t need any prescription to buy and are easy to use. You just need to press the plastic strip on top of your teeth and keep it there for a minimum of half an hour. You can see the stains disappear leaving only shining teeth behind to smile freely. To remove deeper stains, you need to apply the strips continuously for two weeks twice a day. The effects last for at least six months.

Crest whitening strips are quite well marketed because they are safer to use and give quick results. Moreover, the strips are cost effective, thus favourite of everyone loving the see their bright smile looking lovelier than before.

If you have symptoms such as irregular bowel movements, rectal bleeding, excessive heartburn, stomach pain, bloating, or difficulty swallowing, you might be advised to see a gastroenterologist, a digestive disorders specialist, or if you are of age to begin routine colorectal cancer screening.

If your symptoms are fresh or mild in severity, you can see your regular doctor for some preliminary tests. He or she will decide whether or not you need to see a specialist.

Author: Dr. Sarmed Sami MBChB, MRCP, PGCME, PhD

Consultant Gastroenterologist, Founder and Director of Digestive Health UK. https://digestivehealthuk.com/

Who is a gastroenterologist?

Many people think of the human gastrointestinal system as consisting only of the stomach and intestines. The oesophagus, stomach, small intestine, colon, and rectum, as well as the pancreas, gallbladder, bile ducts, and liver, are all examined in gastroenterology.

Abnormal bowel movements

Constipation can be caused by a blockage, neurological problems, muscular or hormonal dysfunction, diet, or other causes if you have less than three bowel movements per week. A gastroenterologist will help you figure out what’s causing your symptoms.

Diarrhea: If you have runny stool for more than a few days, it may be caused by a virus, parasite/bacteria, lactose sensitivity, a drug reaction, or other digestive disorders like Crohn’s disease or ulcerative colitis, to name a few.

Rectal bleeding

Blood in the stool may have a variety of causes, but it usually indicates that there is bleeding somewhere in your digestive tract. An anal fissure (a minor cut or tear in the tissue lining the anus), haemorrhoids, or anything needing medical treatment, such as cancer, may be the cause.

Heartburn

Heartburn on rare occasions is probably nothing to worry about, but chronic heartburn could mean GERD, Barrett’s Esophagus, or even esophageal cancer. If you have frequent acid reflux, you could be diagnosed with GERD and given medication to relieve your pain, as well as tests to validate the diagnosis.

45 plus age

A screening test is a preventative measure that should be performed prior to the onset of symptoms. Precancerous polyps, which can be detected and removed during a colonoscopy, are also the start of colorectal cancer. Adults aged 50 to 75 should be screened for colorectal cancer, according to the United States Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF). Some patients need screening colonoscopies sooner than others. African Americans, for example, should begin the screening process at the age of 45.

Conclusion

You may have trouble swallowing or are unable to swallow due to some illnesses. If you have frequent esophageal pain or trouble swallowing, or if your difficulty swallowing worsens over time, a gastroenterologist can perform an upper endoscopy to determine the source of your discomfort and begin treating it.

Many men have a hard time talking about erectile dysfunction, or ED, often because it relates to their masculinity. In simple words, erectile dysfunction is a condition, where a man has a hard time getting or maintaining an erection. Occasional issues with erection, however, doesn’t mean that a man has erectile dysfunction. If you believe you have ED, you should consider seeing an experienced urologist Brooklyn New York. Urologists are trained to treat problems of the male reproductive system, including ED. 

Symptoms

The most common symptom of erectile dysfunction (ED) is inability to get an erection, or retaining the erection long enough for penetrative sex. Contrary to what many men believe, erectile dysfunction is not that uncommon and can affect a man at any age. Like we mentioned, just because you couldn’t get an erection once or a few times, it doesn’t mean you have erectile dysfunction that cannot be treated. 

Causes

There are several causes of erectile dysfunction, including diabetes, high blood pressure, kidney disease, low testosterone levels, hormonal imbalance, stress, anxiety, depression, and relationship problems. Some medications taken for specific health problems may also contribute to erectile dysfunction. Health conditions, including Parkinson’s disease, and habits like smoking or tobacco use have been associated with ED. 

Treatment 

ED treatment usually depends on the underlying cause. A urologist is the best person to decide on the course of the treatment. Medications that can improve blood flow to the penis, such as Viagra or Stendra, can be recommended to some patients. Other treatments like Testosterone therapy (TRT) and penile implant may be recommended, as well. Since psychological factors can cause ED, talk therapy is also used at times. There are also exercises that can help in reducing ED. 

Seeing a urologist

If you have any of the signs and symptoms listed above, or reduced interest in sex, consider seeing a urologist. While ED may seem like a serious problem, it is not always so, and in some cases, just talk therapy and a few lifestyle changes can help. Talking to a urologist is extremely easy, and most urologists prefer to maintain a professional stance towards the problem. In some cases, they may even recommend a few additional tests, so that the actual problem can be found. 

With the right urologist, you can expect to see a difference in your ED symptoms in no time – Just do not ignore the early signs. 

 

 

Peptides or polypeptides are a small chain of amino acid, which triggers human growth hormone or other naturally occurring hormones that control physical changes in a body. We are very well aware of the fact that peptides are commonly used for bodybuilding or anti-aging purposes. However, there are multiple other uses of peptides for the human body, if taken under the controlled measure. Peptides naturally occur in the skin and when there is some deficiency of certain proteins they take the role to balance it. Collagen, which is made up of 3 polypeptide chains, leads to better and repaired skin, thus makes you look younger.

Why is collagen required?

The need for collagen in the body is supplied by the body itself, but over time the production lowers down. In such a situation, wrinkles and fine lines appear on the skin and make it look aged. The proper consumption of the application of peptide-based medication can heal your skin and retain its natural condition. You can buy peptides from specific stores or buy Receptor Grade IGF-1 LR3 Online, which is mainly used for cell proliferation or cell-division, but also used for structural changes.

Improves skin 

Skin normally prevents bacteria, fungus, toxins, pollution, or ultraviolet ray to affect the body. The skin works as a shield to play a defensive role for and peptides help in enhancing this character. Skin absorbs peptides when it is needed and thus ensures a safer and healthier human body.

Anti-aging characteristic 

These peptides help in making the skin firmer and healthier. And as a result, it reduces wrinkles and fine lines, which are visible from the outside. Also, the collagen helps in making the skin more elastic and less damage-prone.

The anti-microbial approach also helps a skin to retain its natural beauty by killing the bacteria that can cause acne.

The function of peptides on skin

Usually, peptides are present in the body for the natural growth of the body and healing damages. However, with time peptides need to be pushed into the body, under medical supervision, so that the peptides can play as a catalyst. The peptides go inside the skin layers and send messages to cells for producing collagen.

 

One should follow some scientific method in the process of selection of peptides. It will be difficult to start your search, thus you need to have good knowledge of the product. Physicians can help you in the process. It is also strictly mentioned that peptides should not be consumed or applied without the consent of a doctor. Peptides can have an adverse impact if taken at a higher concentration or if the person has some prolong ailment. Pregnant women should stay away from peptides at any condition. Skincare products use peptides for formulating a drug so always go for branded products. Peptide application or consumption can lead to an allergic reaction and thus it should be used very carefully. Still, now research work is going on to deliver further scientific advantages of peptides for a human trial. 

 

Hereditary fructose intolerance is an autosomal recessive congenital disorder caused by mutation in the gene encoding the synthesis of the type B aldolase enzyme, located on chromosome 9q31.1. This mutation reduces the enzymatic activity of type B aldolase, expressed mainly in the liver, but which can also be found in intestinal and renal cells. The role of aldolase is to cleave phosphorylated fructose (fructose-1-phosphate) into glyceraldehyde and dihydroxyacetone phosphate. Thus the body’s ability to metabolize fructose is dramatically affected, resulting in the accumulation of fructose in liver cells in the form of fructose-1-phosphate.

The Right Accumulation

The accumulation of fructose-1-phosphate in the hepatocyte cytoplasm leads to the sequential sequestration of inorganic phosphate and the activation of adenosine monophosphate (AMP) deaminase which irreversibly catalyzes the deamination of AMP to IMP (inosine monophosphate) and adenine is converted to uric acid. Nicotinamide Mononucleotide or NMN is from the nucleotides family. The nucleotides are those organic modules that are found in maximum food items that we consume. Along with the other nucleotides The NMN happens to be made of 3 parts. In simpler words, the higher the NMN is, the higher is the level of NAD+. Choosing the right nmn powder manufacturer is important in this case.

The Right Ratio

Consequently, the ratio between AMP and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) changes dramatically, the tissue depletion of ATP being a consequence of the massive degradation of uric acid and the impossibility of regenerating ATP reserves (the process of oxidative phosphorylation in mitochondria – cell power plants- cannot occur in the absence of inorganic phosphate, which is sequestered in the cytoplasm). Low availability of ATP in liver tissue affects gluconeogenesis (causing hypoglycemia and vomiting) and protein synthesis (causing a reduction in the production of clotting factors and other proteins vital to the body).

  • The inability of fructose to be cleaved into glyceraldehyde and dihydroxyacetonphosphate, which participates in the processes of glycolysis and gluconeogenesis, disrupts the homeostasis of carbohydrate metabolism. This explains the hypoglycemia and metabolic acidosis that accompany hereditary fructose intolerance. Intense degradation of uric acid Explain could clinically impaired hyperuricemic. Also, the competition between urate and lactate for renal excretion is considered responsible for the occurrence oflactic acidosis.
  • Another consequence of increased fructose-1-phosphate concentrations is the inhibition of fructokinase by a feedback mechanism, causing an increase in the level of free fructose in the blood (fructose).
  • Intracellular accumulation of fructose-1-phosphate may induce hepatocellular toxicity , which may be one of the mechanisms responsible for severe liver dysfunction / destruction. The onset of proximal renal tubulopathy is not a well-defined cause, but it can often be complicated by amino acids, glucosuria, phosphaturia, and bicarbonate.

Conclusion

The prevalence of hereditary fructose intolerance is unknown, but some studies in the United States and Europe estimate its frequency in 1 in 20,000 newborns, respectively 12,000 – 58,000 births according to an analysis conducted. For fighting against different diseases, the use of the NAD+ form happens to be of the best importance. Just like the NMN powder, the NR powder is also quite effective. In the elevation of the NAD+ levels, that faces decline as the age increases, both of these powers are used for a number of physical ailments. But other than that the NR powder and the NMN powder is also available now that work as perfect supplement options. You can choose the best nr powder manufacturer for the same.

The introduction of artificial intelligence (AI) systems in medicine is one of the most important modern trends in world healthcare. AI technologies are radically transforming the global healthcare system, enabling to radically redesign the system of medical diagnostics, the development of new drugs, and generally improve the quality of healthcare services while decreasing the costs for medical clinics.

 How artificial intelligence can help doctors?

The potential of AI technologies in medicine cannot be overestimated. Neural networks are already improving the quality of medical services, increasing the efficiency of diagnostics due to the ability to work with large amounts of data.

For example, AI-powered medical chat bots help with many tasks. The service collects complaints from patients and, given the indicated symptoms, can advise on medications or make an appointment with a doctor. The collected information goes to a medical specialist who will be able to more effectively conduct the first consultation and provide the necessary assistance to the patient much faster.

AI programs are also used in X-ray analysis and drug development. Semantic Hub recently created an artificial intelligence service to assess the potential of medicines before they are released to market. The algorithm collects and analyzes scientific publications related to the disease, the purpose and action of the drug being developed. Then the AI ​​analyzes the information and makes a conclusion about the competitive advantages of the drug and the possibilities of its promotion on the market.

What are the advantages of AI in Healthcare?

AI healthcare technology improves productivity by automating tasks and can assist clinicians with quick, proper diagnoses and treatment. AI digital triage in radiology can decrease the compute time needed to create images. In population health, machine learning can better identify the likelihood of hospital readmission. Artificial intelligence in healthcare development can point to the development of new medicines. It can also make it possible to ingest data from various sources, such as medical records and important signs, and identify patterns that are hard for humans to spot.

Klinik’s technology can recognize the primary health problem, identify its urgency, and direct the patient to the right point of care in a timely, cost-effective way. AI digital triage also gives important background information for healthcare experts, enabling them to begin any medical treatment as soon as possible.

Although first aid training is a mandatory part of the education of future drivers, the time spent on this preparation is too short. Most drivers who have had a driving license for many years had this element on the course once and never refreshed this knowledge again. Already 6 months after the training, we forget the basics of erste hilfe kurs, not to mention the cyclically changing guidelines.

Car first aid kit

This is the first thing that comes to mind when we think of first aid in a traffic accident. Without the basic equipment, which is a first aid kit, your actions will be difficult or even impossible. Of course, you can use the knowledge gained in erste hilfe kurs moosach. But we guarantee you that a traffic accident suggests many problems that you must face as a first-aid driver. The mechanics of the traffic accident “does its job”, and the injuries that you will deal with are considerable.

What first aid kit for your car?

We can say that a traffic accident is a “big mess” and a lot of activities to be performed. Injuries to victims of such accidents are almost always multi-organ injuries – many ‘problems’ to be solved in a short time. Simultaneous hemorrhages, fractures, external and internal injuries. All this should be multiplied by the number of injured people. A car first aid kit should be properly equipped. In erste hilfe führerschein, students learn to use the first aid kit correctly.

As drivers, we are most interested in the DIN 13164 standard, which defines, among other things, the equipment of first aid kits used in the conditions of a road accident. DIN 13164 PLUS (+) denotes additional elements added to the basic composition of the first aid kit, most often in the form of a mouthpiece/face cloth for providing emergency rescue breaths during CPR, i.e. cardiopulmonary resuscitation.