R&D means research and development. It is defined as any project that tends to resolve any technological or scientific uncertainty at achieving an advance in science or technology. The one who is working under r&d pharma is termed to be scientists. They create new technology, products or services that they use or sell. They require more responsibilities and knowledge to achieve an advance in science and technology. Every year billions of money are spent under R&D. Those who are working under R&D should have more experience and knowledge about their field.

Qualification required for one to join R&D pharma industry

Pharma is a diverse field. A post-graduation in the specific area is necessary. Formulation R&D exclusively requires M.pharm candidates.

Understanding pharmaceutical research

The medical researchers are constantly trying to find some new medicines for better ways to treat the illness. They try to discover something new that may be helpful for the public and it cannot be directly put in use until it has been properly tested.

Phases under pharmaceutical research

To ensure whether the product is safe and effective in treating the diseases the pharmaceutical companies undergo a series of phases. There are three phases involved in this process. Occasionally phase 0 is carried out before phase 1and phase 4 is done after the drug is approved and is launched in the market.

Phase 0

Phase 0 is known as human micro-dose studies. It involves only a small group of participants who will be given a low, sub-therapeutic dose of the drug. Some pharmaceutical industries skip this phase and move on to phase1.

Phase 1

This stage involves a larger number of participants when compared to that of phase 0. It is the first full human study that the drug will be subject to. The safety of the participants is mainly focused on. For Phase 1 the healthy volunteers and the patients with the indicated disease are mostly preferred and the capacity of the drug is tested in them.

Phase 2

If the drug is tolerated in phase1 then it progresses to the next phase. In this phase, the number of patients has increased once again. The drug is given to the participants. During this phase, the researchers can pinpoint the side effects of the drug. Similarly, the safety of the participants is important and continues the assessments from the previous studies.

Phase 3

Phase 3 differs from phase 1 and phase 2. They concentrate more on discovering the efficacy of the drug. The phase 3 trials can be divided into two sub-stages- phase 3A and Phase 3B. When phase 3A is completed the drug manufacturers often apply for approval meanwhile they undertake phase 3B studies to obtain further safety data and further data about the drug.

Phase 4

Phase 4 is also known as a post-marketing surveillance trial. After the approval from national regulatory authorities, the drugs continue in the trial process and enter phase 4. This phase provides an opportunity for researchers to know more about the risks and benefits.

Thus r&d pharma produces more drugs for the sake of curing and preventing diseases most safely and possibly. They also see the safety, compliance, and efficiency while manufacturing medicines.


Do you have a pet in your home? If yes then do you question yourself that add this suitable and happy in your home? Pet out also living beings and they cannot speak. We human have to face various anxiety and depression in day to day life. Similarly, pets are also such animals that survive in this world and have to face the same pain within them. If your pet is also facing such a problem then do read this article because it is all about glow CBD pets. Let’s know how to treat your dog or cat from the problem of anxiety and stress.

Does your dog also have an anxiety problem?

If you notice in your dog that they have the problem of anxiety then definitely give him your companion. Stress is the normal thing which can be seen in human as well as in animal. Some benefits of CBD for glow CBD pets are as follows.

  • It can improve the problem of inflammation and the pain which is associated with the joint. It can also help in the surgery which will reduce the problem of pain.
  • As usual, depression anxiety and the stress problem is also cute very easily.
  • If your dog is facing a problem related to sleep then definitely the issue of sleep can also be solved with CBD oil.

Is it really helpful for your dog?

If you are thinking that glow CBD pets are the best for your dog then definitely it is best. The main reason to use CBD for your dog is the adaptability and the calmness which can treat you from anxiety. Various medications and common solutions are available in the market but CBD is safer for your pet. You can see that it has negligible or zero side effects. You can choose a CBD product very cunningly. It does the one who has life within it and for them; you have to choose the product. Various types of 3rd party testing are done before selling this product.

Try to discover the new facts about glow CBD pets and use then asper your pet habit. You will get various types of oil available for your pet so that they can easily adapt it and can avail good and better results. For more facts and figures do rely on the online source and gain more benefits about it so that it will be helpful.

There are many of us who like to have Marijuana autoflower seeds in US. There are novice, intermediate and even experienced growers who love to grow their own plant no matter how long it takes. Growing your own cannabis is an experience and many of us enjoy doing it. As the amount of cannabis is increasing in our daily lives, the hangover from the same is also increasing. The cannabis hangovers are affecting different people in different ways. While some people can completely handle it, the others will feel bed ridden for the whole day if they had a hard night with cannabis smoking.

It is time that we reveal all the common symptoms of cannabis hangover so that you are at least aware of the same. The symptoms may be different for different individuals, the common symptoms of a weed hangover are brain fog, lethargy, fatigue, red eyes, headaches, nausea, dry mouth and eyes and so on. It is known that most of these symptoms are subjective and anecdotal, the cannabis scientists have delved into the domain of weed hangovers to try the phenomenon out. They have run pretty good number of questionnaires that have enabled them to target the core symptoms Marijuana Autoflower Seeds Us .

The common causes of the weed hangovers

The weed hangovers are definitely multi-dimensional and there are varied number of variables contribute to how smokers feel the next morning. If the cannabis smoker is going to expose himself to the following factors, they will likely feel the hangover the next day:

  1. High Doses of THC

If you are hitting hard on the THC laced brownies, you are going to have a hard hangover the next day for sure. Such high levels of THC take longer to process and this is why you will wake up stoned. Although the effects of smoked cannabis will peak for 1-3 hours, the edible cannabis will make its way through the body.

  1. Smoking

Smoking the cannabis directly will have cause more fatigue as that of what is caused by vaping. If you have the habit of smoking more, you might get more hangover. There are users who choose to add tobacco to their joints that will cause foggy and lethargic feeling the following morning.

  1. The Munchies

The cannabis makes people hungrier. The more you are hungry, the more you are going to binge on the munchies. The kind of munchies you eat during this time will also add to your hangover.

Get your Marijuana autoflower seeds in the US, but when you have your harvest in hand, you should always try to prevent and combat the hangover. For more information, keep checking our blogs to get the latest updates.

Women spend a substantial amount of money on healthcare compared to men. It is estimated that a 65-year-old woman will pay 20% more for healthcare throughout retirement compared to a 65-year-old man, according to a HealthView Service study. The main reason senior women pay more for healthcare is that they tend to live longer than men. It is expected for a woman to live 2.3 years longer than a man, according to Social Security’s website.

Since women live longer than men, women should plan differently for Medicare. Medicare is America’s healthcare system for seniors aged 65 or older or for people with specific disabilities. Women’s bodies consistently evolve, and preventative checkups are essential as the percentage of breast cancer and osteoporosis increase as you age. Here is why women should plan differently for Medicare.

Medicare and breast cancer

Breast cancer is the second most common form of cancer in women, according to the Centers for Disease and Prevention (CDC). Medicare is a big advocate for screenings and preventative services.  A preventive service that helps detect breast cancer is a mammogram exam, a low energy x-ray of the breast.

Medicare Part B (outpatient coverage) covers a mammogram exam at 100% once per year. If the doctor were to find something during your exam, it would be considered a diagnostic test. After you have met the deductible, you would pay a 20% coinsurance for a diagnostic mammogram exam. However, if you have a Medigap plan, your plan will likely pick up the coinsurance cost.

If you have a mastectomy, Medicare Part A (inpatient coverage) covers surgically implanted breast prostheses if the procedure takes place in an inpatient facility. However, Part B will cover the surgery if it takes place in an outpatient setting. With that said, Part B covers some external breast prostheses and a post-surgical bra after a mastectomy.

Menopause and Medicare

Women typically begin to experience menopause around age 50. Menopause is a natural decline in the production of reproductive hormones. What this means is your body is producing a drastically smaller number of hormones. Symptoms of menopause consist of hot flashes, night sweats, insomnia, and vaginal dryness.

Medicare covers hormone replacement therapy for menopause, which is used to treat menopausal symptoms. The treatment replaces the hormones that stop producing during menopause, which will ease the symptoms as well.

Hormone replacement drugs come in the form of a pill, cream, and patch, as well as a vaginal ring. Your doctor may recommend one over the other. With that said, Medicare Part B may cover the vaginal ring for hormone replacement therapy if the doctor deems the treatment medically necessary. If you receive the treatment in the form of a pill or cream, Medicare will not cover it, considering Medicare does not cover prescriptions.

Hormone replacement therapy via pill or cream will be covered by Medicare Part D (prescription drug coverage). However, each Part D plan has a different list of prescriptions they cover. If your doctor prescribes you a particular hormone replacement therapy drug, you will want to ensure that your Part D plan has that needed drug listed on the plan’s formulary.

Now, hormone replacement therapy can also reduce the possibility of developing osteoporosis.

Women with osteoporosis

Osteoporosis is a condition that makes your bones weak and fragile. Many senior women have no signs of osteoporosis until they have a bone fracture. Bone density tests can detect a decrease in your bone density and determine if you are at risk of fractures. Medicare Part B covers a bone density test once every 24 months if you meet a set of qualifying conditions.

There are injectable drugs for osteoporosis that Medicare Part A and Part B will cover. You can also have a home health nurse come to your home and inject you with the medication if you meet these conditions:

  • You have Part B and meet the home health services criteria
  • You have a bone fracture that is related to postmenopausal osteoporosis
  • You’re a woman
  • Your doctor declares that you and a family member are unable to give you the injectable drug.

You will not have any out-of-pocket costs for a home health nurse to visit your home. However, you must meet the Part B deductible and pay coinsurance for the injection’s Medicare-approved amount.


Women must look at Medicare differently as their bodies consistently evolve throughout their lives, and health conditions can arise. As you age, know that Medicare covers any service that is deemed medically necessary from a physician. For more information on Medicare coverage, contact a trusted Medicare broker, or visit

With so many different diets available today, it can be difficult to know which one to use when weight loss is the goal. While the most popular diets focus on removing excess calories from the dieter’s diet by reducing intake, this isn’t always enough to shed unwanted pounds. Fortunately, there are alternatives for those looking to lose weight without resorting to fad diets that might not work.

Not everyone should use a diet to lose weight. Some illnesses could put someone at risk of developing serious health complications if they are using diet to lose weight. That is why dieting should only be done when the diet plan is medically safe for the person. That is not to say that you should avoid using the best diet plans because you might end up having problems.

Diet programs work by eliminating excessive carbohydrates and increased protein. They also limit the number of calories consumed and the amount of water consumed. By limiting food groups, the diet plans force your body to burn stored fat instead of just eating to replace the calories. In turn, your body burns more calories to produce more energy.

There are several different types of diet plans and each diet has its own set of benefits. Your doctor can help you decide which type of diet would be best for you. Below is an overview of the diet plans.

Bests Diet Plans

A low calorie diet. This diet requires the dieter to consume fewer calories per day than the maximum allowed on their diet plan. The goal is to gradually reduce calories to achieve your goal weight, and the dieter must continue to stay within the maximum daily calorie allowance for dieting.

A moderate calorie diet. In a moderate calorie diet, the dieter may be allowed to eat higher amounts of calories than they normally would, provided that they do not exceed the recommended caloric intake limit. Ina moderate calorie diet, the dieter would have to restrict their calorie intake but may not have to totally cut it out.

A strict diet. In a strict diet, the dieter is allowed to consume unlimited amounts of calories without regard to how much he or she actually needs. The dieter must adhere to the diet and does not allow any outside food.

A low carbohydrate diet. In a low carbohydrate diet, the dieter is allowed to eat high amounts of carbohydrates, but the dieter must still consume the required amount of calories. This is a weight loss diet that helps the dieter lose weight in a safe way.

A low protein diet. In a low protein diet, the dieter is allowed to eat high amounts of protein, but the dieter must still consume the required amount of calories. In a low protein diet, the dieter must follow a strict regimen and cannot consume any foods that are high in protein.

Food to Avoid To Lose Weight

Losing weight requires that the dieter avoid the foods that could be harmful to their health. As a result, the best weight loss diet plans must ensure that the dieter takes in only the right amount of calories while avoiding the foods that might be harmful to their health.

To get started on a healthy diet plan, there are several things to consider. One, you should make sure that you will be following a strict diet, but two, you should know what foods to stay away from, which is where the best weight loss diet plans can come in handy. A good diet to consider would be a custom keto diet.


One of the most important things you can do is make sure that you are staying on track with your diet. You should choose a diet plan based on your personal preferences, as well as knowing the foods that you should stay away from.

An ophthalmologist is an osteopathic doctor associated with treating and diagnosing different eye-related problems and injuries.  So, an ophthalmologist expert witness is also an eye doctor having certification to offer testimony in malpractice cases. They are called upon by an attorney to consult on medical issues like orbital or ocular health, blindness, vision problems, neuro-ophthalmology, glaucoma, cataract, macular degeneration, dry eyes, optic nerves, retinal surgeries, and vitreous disorders. They can also provide deposition and testimony in cases related to anesthesia, or refractive surgery.

In this article, we’ll discuss the role of ophthalmologists with special reference to cataract and glaucoma surgeries.

Cataract surgery: what is it and what are the malpractices?

A cataract is an eye problem that is mainly prevalent in old adults. If you have blurred vision, it is mostly because your lens is getting cloudy. At times, eye drops or glasses cannot correct this issue and this is when an ophthalmologist can recommend cataract surgery. In this surgery, the cloudy lens will be removed and it’ll be replaced with a new artificial lens. The best thing about this surgery is that it is done on an outpatient basis. The modern cataract surgery procedure namely phacoemulsification can be performed with smaller incisions and it is far better than traditional surgical techniques. This process reduces the risks of cataract surgical complications and promotes rapid healing. The incisions will be closed and the eye is bandaged with a protective cover.  After a few days, you’ll be asked to visit the doctor again where the doctor will open the shield from your eye and will guide you on the future course of action.

However, patients can sustain injuries due to the negligence of the surgeon. When the doctor breaches the duty of care causing injury to the patient, it can be termed as a medical malpractice case. To get your deserving compensation, you need to seek professional help from an attorney and a cataract surgery expert witness. Before that, one should know the cases in which you can claim compensation. Some of the examples of cataract surgical errors include-

  • Retinal detachment– This is one of the common side-effects that happen after cataract surgery. There can be malpractice lawsuits against the surgeon if it includes misdiagnosis or informed consent. If retinal pathology symptoms are found, it is imperative to perform a dilated exam. The outcome of retinal detachment will depend on the length and extent of the detachment.
  • Corneal edema– There can be a case of negligence if the patient faces swelling of the cornea as a result of the trauma of the surgery. Negligence malpractices may be brought against the medical practitioner in case of excessive trauma or insufficient assertiveness in treating the problem with steroids. All of this may necessitate corneal transplantation.
  • Issues with the intraocular lens– Intra Ocular Lens are placed inside the eye after removing the cloudy lens. This artificial lens is placed to restore the vision. Some of the major instances of malpractices include- miscalculations in deciding the power of the eye, failure to address the cause of deviation. Sometimes, surgical errors may take place if the doctor fails to place the lens correctly and this may lead to visual disturbances and displacement.
  • Eye infections This is a very common yet serious complication that may happen after cataract surgery. The post-surgical eye infections are known as endophthalmitis. You should immediately get in touch with a retina specialist as soon as you discover this problem. Any kind of vision problems or pain in the eyes will require immediate medical attention. If the surgeon fails to address these problems and refer the patient to a specialist within 10 days of such discovery, then it’ll constitute a case of negligence.
  • Informed consent– The surgeon needs to inform the patients regarding the benefits and risks before performing the surgery. Besides this, the surgeon should scrutinize the previous medical history of the patient to find out other medical complications. Informed consent is the process of seeking approval from patients before conducting surgery or another medical intervention.  It’s an agreement that happens between you and your healthcare provider on the permission of treatment and services.  The consent should be both in verbal and written forms. This is done to ensure that the patient is ready for the surgery despite knowing the risks and benefits. If the doctor fails to consider these aspects, the patient can file malpractice litigation against them.

If you or your loved ones have sustained injuries or complications due to the negligence of the surgeon, then you’ll need to retain a lawyer for the same. The attorneys, at some point of the investigation, will call upon an expert witness to get medico-legal guidance on the matter. Remember that malpractice cases involve complex elements and without the help of expert advice, it’s not possible to comprehend these intricate details. They’ll prepare case reports based on the findings, calculate the damages caused to the patient, determine the fault of the surgeon and lastly, the expert witness has to establish that there has been no contributory negligence. Because in the case of contributory negligence, the compensation amount will be reduced and if the plaintiff is responsible for the majority of the damages, the defense might take stern steps against the plaintiff. Hence, all these issues have to be determined before filing a malpractice case. The role of expert witnesses is extremely crucial because it is their testimony that can make or break the case. Though the jurors are not bound to consider everything that the experts say, it’s difficult to give a fair judgment without seeking their opinion.

Ophthalmology Expert Witness | Expert Institute

Glaucoma Surgery- Why it is done and what are the complications you can face?

To understand the role of a glaucoma surgery expert witness, it is important to understand the reasons for getting a glaucoma surgery and the complications in it.

The majority of the glaucoma surgical errors are linked to the negligence of the surgeon. Instances like delayed diagnosis, failure to determine glaucoma problems, breach of duty of care, failure to obtain informed consent are some of the malpractices.

Glaucoma is a problem of the ocular perceiver. When the fluids do not circular properly within the ocular perceiver, it leads to a buildup of pressure causing damage. If you are facing glaucoma problems, you might face any of the symptoms mentioned below.

  • Redness
  • Loss of vision
  • Visual halos
  • Eyes have a hazy appearance
  • Blurred vision
  • Tunnel vision
  • Eye pain
  • Headache
  • Vomiting or nausea

Glaucoma surgery is the best treatment for glaucoma problems. However, these symptoms can worsen if there is negligence by the surgeon. Patients can get compensation for sustaining injuries due to this breach of duty of care. Some of the glaucoma malpractice cases include- failure to obtain consent from the patient, misdiagnosis, delayed diagnosis, eye infections, choroidal detachment, malignant glaucoma, hypotony maculopathy, ocular decompression retinopathy, and retinal detachment. If you sustain such injuries due to the negligence of the patient, you need to retain a legal representative. The attorneys will seek medico-legal help from an ophthalmologist expert witness to understand the unprofessional conduct by the surgeon. The lawsuit will be filed once it is proved that there has been malpractice by the surgeon.

Malpractices related to glaucoma surgery:

Just like any other operation, glaucoma surgery also has certain risks. Therefore, the surgeon should have an open dialogue with the patient before proceeding with the surgery. Some of the common side effects of these surgeries are as follows:

  • Eye infections
  • Hypotony
  • Scarring cataract formation
  • Bleeding in the eye
  • Loss of vision
  • Fluid pockets behind the retina

If you are facing any of these side effects as a result of surgical negligence, you should immediately get in touch with an attorney. These attorneys are experienced and they know how to prove negligence. Usually, this is done with the help of expert witnesses. In this context, one needs to understand that the testimony offered by these experts can make or break your case. Therefore, these expert witnesses have to be selected very carefully. To do this, one needs to consider the following factors before making the choice.

Factors to consider before choosing an eye expert witness:

Below mentioned is a list of factors that you must consider before choosing an expert witness.

  • Experience, qualifications and Certification of the ophthalmologist

The first thing that you need to consider is the educational qualifications, experience, and if the doctor has the license to testify in medical negligence cases. Now in a general sense, most doctors have a good educational background. But what is important to note here is whether they have a license to be an expert witness. All ophthalmologist expert witnesses are eye specialists but all eye doctors are not expert witnesses. In other words, these experts should have board certification to provide depositions and testimony in court proceedings. Note that the case reviews and written documents offered by these experts will play a crucial role in the court. The testimony offered needs to be clinically true and scientifically proven.

  • Persuasion skills

The degrees, qualifications, and experience won’t count if the expert witness is unable to simplify the complex matter of the case. Preparation of the written documents is not enough because these documents are written using medical terminologies. What is important here is to explain the findings in simple language so that it is easily digestible by the decision-makers.

Apart from degrees, qualifications, or certification, it’s important to know how well these witnesses can communicate. Any medical malpractice case is complicated because of the complex elements. Usually, most malpractices happen because of the wrong usage of instruments, misdiagnosis, failure to seek informed consent, delayed diagnosis, and others. Therefore, it’s important to find an expert witness who can simplify these technical elements and communicate these findings to the jury. Judges and decision-makers do not have knowledge of the technical matters of a medical malpractice case. Degrees and certificates won’t count if the witness is unable to present the facts correctly. How well the expert can persuade will determine the direction of the outcome of the case.

  • Check the success rates of the cases testified by the expert:

You need to go through the other cases in which the expert witness in question has offered testimony or deposition. It’s important to know if the plaintiff in previous cases has won the case or not. This is relevant to the communication factor. The plaintiff can win the case if the expert witness can present the right facts to the jury. Besides this, the experts should also have the experience to negate the claims put forward by the defendant’s attorney.  The better the communication is, the greater is the chance of winning the case.

There will be times when the defendant will ask the same questions and try to confuse the expert. These are the situations when the expert should boldly negate the claims put forth by the defendant. How well the expert witness presents the facts will give a hint on who will win the case. To some extent, it will decide whether the case will be in your favor or not.

By considering the above points, it should be easier to find the best expert witness for your case. Apart from the factors mentioned above, expert witnesses should also be experienced in calculating the compensation amount. Without determining the severity of the damages, it’s impossible to find out the exact amount. They should also have the knowledge to explain how they have made the calculations and above all, why it is true. Malpractice cases require immediate legal help. This is because there’s a certain time limit within which the plaintiff needs to make the claim. Usually, this time frame is two years from the date of the procedure that injured or worsened your condition.

As you grow older, frown lines may appear on your forehead. These frown lines are also called glabellar lines. You can notice these frown lines when you make facial expressions, or for a few people even without making any facial expressions, fine lines can be visible. This kind of wrinkles occur in between your eyebrows just above your nose. Often it is said that these glabellar lines occur due to aging. But it is not true and is just a myth. These wrinkles are no longer restricted only to the phenomenon of aging.

What are the Glabella lines?

The glabellar lines are the vertical lines that develop between the eyebrows and just above the nose. These vertical lines or wrinkles appear as a result of laughing, frowning, or merely focusing while listening or reading. These lines can become a permanent fixture on the face that makes a person appear like an aged person.

What are the causes of the appearance of these wrinkles?

The appearance of wrinkles or lines on the face depends on how well you look after your skin, both externally and internally. These wrinkles can develop on your forehead as a result of stress, lack of proper skincare regimen, and unhealthy habits such as consumption of alcohol and smoking. 

However, these wrinkles are formed also as a direct outcome of aging. As you age, the production of collagen decreases, causing the skin to lose its elasticity, which tends to develop wrinkles. In some cases, these wrinkles appear due to hormonal changes, excessive exposure to UV radiation from the sun, and sometimes stress also can cause the appearance of fine lines.

Nobody likes to have these wrinkles on their faces. People used to try some solution or another to get rid of them. Initially, most people went for natural remedies to reduce those wrinkles and to get rid of it. Though there are lots of natural remedies to reduce these fine lines, it may not give the final outcome immediately, or in some cases, it doesn’t work for everyone. 

Hence, it is always advisable to consult a dermatologist to find appropriate solutions. Nowadays, many clinical treatments are available to treat fine lines or frown lines. Though we call it cosmetic surgery, those surgeries don’t always involve a procedure using a knife and stitches. Some therapy doesn’t even need any waiting time at all. Within a single day, at a single sitting, therapies are performed to remove glabellar lines or fine lines. Dansys Group is providing one of the best treatments, using NABOTA, Botulinum Toxin Type A, an injectable solution.

What is NABOTA?

NABOTA is a Botulinum Toxin Type A solution developed by Daewoong Pharmaceuticals using patent technology. NABOTA is a botulinum toxin product developed with high purity. It effectively helps in eliminating glabellar lines. 

NABOTA, a Botulinum toxin drug product manufactured by Daewoong Pharmaceuticals, has proved efficacy and safety through FDA approval. After several trials, NABOTA has achieved both FDA approval and patient’s satisfaction.

How does this Botulinum toxin work?

Botulinum toxin is prepared from a specific type of bacteria. When botulinum toxin is injected, it blocks few of the nerve signals and makes the muscles to contract. Thus by making the muscles relax, it helps in reducing unwanted wrinkles. 

However, this Botulinum toxin can be poisonous if injected in a higher amount. Only small, weaker doses of botulinum toxin should be used to reduce facial wrinkles.  Yet for patients to achieve their satisfaction, a reputable and self-esteem practitioner can help conduct this utilizing the most reliable procedure available. In Dansys Group, we have specialists who can handle this with care and have achieved patient satisfaction by conducting many surgical therapies. 

Removal of glabella lines process:

NABOTA, a Botulinum toxin drug, is injected into the muscles in the forehead using a sterile 30” gauge needle. A dose of 0.1 mL drug is taken into five injections separately. Two injections are injected into each corrugator muscles and one injection into the procerus muscle, containing a dose of 20 units in total.

The best supplier of NABOTA:

The Dansys Group is one of the best aesthetic medical equipment consultants and distributors in the Gulf region since 2007. We have been beholding an extended remarkable growth rate in the past decade. 

Physicians from other country regions trust Dansys Group for aesthetic medical equipment supply. The potency of NABOTA supplied by Dansys Group was proven to be effective for up to four weeks when stored in the freezer. It will be effective for up to five weeks when stored at room temperature, and also a repetition of freezing/ thawing carried out retains effectiveness up to four times after reconstitution. NABOTA drug is available in three units’ bottles such as 50 units, 100 units, and 200 units, which the physicians can afford according to their needs.

Stability of NABOTA drug after dilution:

  • At freezing temperature of (-15) degree Celcius to (-25) degree Celcius, this drug will be stable after dilution.
  • At room temperature of (15) degree Celcius to (25) degree Celcius, this drug will be stable after dilution.
  • At freezing temperature of (-15) degree Celcius to (-25) degree Celcius, or thawing temperature of (2) degree Celcius to (8) degree Celcius, this drug will be stable after dilution.

Precautions before taking the treatment:

People should not use NABOTA if they have:

  • a sensitivity or allergy to it 
  • an infection at the injection area
  • Numbness of the forehead developed from a nerve injury
  • Contour depression in the forehead area

However, if the patient can convey everything to the physician, then the experts will handle the situation accordingly to avoid health risks.

If someone wants to try the NABOTA drug to remove glabella lines, it is a good idea to speak to a physician about the risks, costs, and other considerations beforehand. NABOTA not only helps in reducing wrinkles but also helps in treating certain disorders related to the nervous and muscular systems. 

We have trained medical experts to help people get a satisfying treatment. The medical equipment furnished by Dansys Group aims to deliver exceptional results that people expect and aspire for. 

To know more about glabella lines removal treatment and what it can do for you, contact Dansys Group – a leading aesthetic medical equipment supplier in UAE and get a quick quote or chat with our customer services team today.

Day by day there are multiple people who are suffering from cancer and it is one of the dangerous diseases also. Now anyone can easily get the natural cure for cancer at a low cost and it is one of the trusted treatments also. There are multiple people are having gained from this cancer treatment and now they are all leading their peaceful life. Cancer must be treated in the premier stage otherwise you will be in danger so that most people are wishing to get this treatment.

Reason for its uniqueness 

Some people assume that the treatment for cancer will be more cot but it is not like that when you are choosing natural treatment. It will give the immediate result from this problem and that’s why most of the people are wishing to choose it. Multiple people are started to suggesting this natural treatment for cancer and it will never be the unwanted one at any time. The main goal of this treatment is to recover everyone affected by cancer.

If you are making this treatment the unwanted one then surely you will be in danger so don’t miss this excellent one for any reason. Most of the people are having queries about is caffeine a carcinogen yes there is a lot of chance for happening like that finally, it will lead to danger. Coffee and tea addiction are one of the reasons for cancer problems and surely it will affect your nerve system. By choosing this natural treatment you will keep away from more expenditure and there is no one can underestimate the value of it at any time.

Highly preferred one forever 

Because of its excellent quality, this becomes the highly preferred one and there is no one can underestimate the value of it at any time. This is the valuable one when compared to the other treatment and it will never found any side effects at any time. Various bodies do excited to appropriate this excellent treatment also there remains no one can minimize the benefit of this at any point. Because of its excellent result, most people are started to following this treatment and it will never be the unwanted one at any time. 

By choosing the natural cure for cancer you will keep away from more expenditure and you no require paying additionally for anything. This simple thing will be more supportive to extend your lifetime and there are no poor reports are appearing on it. Every time the benefit of this service implies improved also the users do deliver great reviews regarding this. Everyone likes to lead a healthy life but most people are affected by some dangerous diseases but you no need to bother about anything the natural treatment will be more supportive for restart your life. 

Low cost with the best treatment 

Because of its excellent capacity, this becomes the widely chosen one and there is no one can underestimate the value of it at any time. You will also suggest this excellent treatment to those who are in need of it and it will be more helpful for them. Every treatment was carryout by qualified experts and the users are giving excellent reviews about it. If you want to recover yourself from cancer then this will be the right choice forever. Multiple people are started to utilize this excellent one and now they are all leading their peaceful life.

This treatment will give a better result in a short time and you will save more by choosing this treatment. Now you will get the perfect idea for the question is caffeine a carcinogen so try to keep away from the coffee and tea addiction. If you make it as the routine one surely it will lead to high risk. Every year there are multiple people are affected by cancer and most of them don’t have enough money to get treatment for it. But you no need to bother about the cost of this treatment and everything comes on your budget. 

Try to recommend it to all 

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Before understanding how an orthopedic expert witness works with the attorneys, the readers should know what arthroscopy is and what malpractices can take place. Arthroscopy is a surgical procedure in which small incisions are made to insert a tiny camera and diagnose joint problems. It gives better clarity of the joint problems. The surgeon inserts the camera to get a magnified image of the joints on the big TV screen. It is a minimally-invasive procedure with a high rate of recoveries. Surgical errors can take place due to various reasons and anyone who is responsible for the same can be sued by the victim. Any surgical act implies a minimal risk of failure and arthroscopy is no exception. If performed correctly, it can have a positive outcome. Before discussing the complications, let’s discuss what shoulder arthroscopy and why it is needed.

Shoulder arthroscopy: Procedure and complications

In shoulder arthroscopy, the doctor makes use of a tiny camera to visualize the problems of joints and tissues. Unlike open surgery, small incisions or cuts are made through which the camera is inserted to inspect, diagnose, and treat joint problems. This procedure is generally recommended when you have painful conditions or when your body stops responding to non-surgical techniques. Some of the non-surgical procedure includes- physical therapies, rest, injections, or medications that help in reducing swelling and inflammation. Shoulder arthroscopy is an ideal solution for treating painful symptoms of problems that cause damage to the articular cartilage, rotator cuff tendons, and the surrounding tissues and muscles near the joint. Some of the common arthroscopic procedures include- repair of ligaments, rotator cuff repair, ligament repairs, removal of loose cartilage, and others.

What can you expect from this surgery?

You’ll receive general anesthesia for this surgery which means that the surgery site will be made numb to give you a painless treatment. Regional anesthesia may also be given so that you don’t feel any pain. Once it is done, the surgeon will go to the next step.

  • Will make small incisions to insert the camera into your shoulder. This arthroscope is attached to a TV screen in the room to get a magnified image.
  • Will monitor the problems in your shoulder joints and tissues that include- bones, cartilage, tendons, and ligaments.
  • Once the problem is detected, the doctor will repair the damages. For this process, few more incisions might be needed to insert other equipment through it. The damages in the tissues or in the joints are fixed by removing them.
  • Once the surgery is complete, the doctor will stitch the cuts and will cover it with a bandage.

The reputed surgeons will always take photos and videos while the procedure was done and this is kept as proof to show what they found and how the damages are fixed.

Long term Results of Shoulder arthroscopy:

The long term results of the procedure will depend on the physical condition and the experience of the surgeon. As far as the long term outcome is concerned, recovery will vary from one individual to the other. In case of minor injuries, you might recover within a short time with proper post-surgical care and rehabilitation. But in case of complicated procedures or patients having serious medical conditions may take time to recover. For example, people having diabetes may take a longer time to recover than the ones who aren’t diabetic. It might take months or even a year to completely recover after surgery. It’s the duty of the doctor to frame a guideline that you should follow after the procedure for a better outcome. However, if you don’t recover, you can seek medico-legal guidance from an orthopedic expert witness through the help of an attorney. This will help you to recover damages that have been caused. An orthopedic witness can explain the reasons why the patient is facing serious complications or what steps a competent medical professional should have taken to prevent such complexities. This will not only help in building the case but also simplify the entire process. You can expect a better outcome when you have an orthopedic expert witness by your side.

Malpractices in shoulder arthroscopy:

Though arthroscopic surgery has high success rates, people do suffer from complications either due to the negligence of the doctor or due to contributory negligence. You can file a lawsuit against your surgeon if you’ve been injured because of the negligence of the surgeon. In order to determine a case of malpractice, you’ll need the help of an orthopedic expert witness and this is possible only when you seek legal representation. These expert witnesses are called upon by the attorney to establish the grounds on which the surgeon could be held accountable. In other words, this expert will help in understanding how the doctor was negligent and what another doctor of the same credibility would have done under the same circumstances. Hence, the role of expert witnesses in malpractice cases is important!

Below is a comprehensive list of the complications that you might face after shoulder arthroscopy. If you feel that you or your loved ones have faced any of them due to negligence by the medical professionals, you should immediately get in touch with a malpractice attorney.


One of the common side-effects is joint infections. However, this problem should subside within a few days. If the infection doesn’t subside, then there might be a case of malpractice.

Frozen shoulder/Stiffness

After a shoulder operation, you might face some difficulty in moving your shoulders but that should be temporary. The overall risk of stiffness is nearly 5%.


Another rare yet severe complication found after shoulder arthroscopy is Chondrolysis. It is the damage caused to the cartilage of the shoulder joints and this problem is more visible in athletes.

Nerve Injury

These are rare complications but it can have devastating effects if permanent. The main nerves that are at high risk of damage are the Axillary and the Musculocutaneous nerve.

Besides this, there are various other types of injuries which can be stated as follows:

  • Traction injuries– Due to the use of excessive traction during surgery, the nerves surrounding the shoulder can stretch causing injury.
  • Anesthetic injuries– Before surgery, the patients are given local anesthesia to numb the area of surgery. The doctors should ask the patients if they are allergic to anesthesia. Only 0.4% of the patients get affected by anesthesia and can have prolonged effects.
  • Direct injury– The surgeons while performing the surgery should be able to prevent direct injury to the nerves around the shoulders.

Role of orthopedic expert witnesses in shoulder arthroscopy:

It’s quite clear from the above discussion that shoulder arthroscopy is also exposed to several risks. Hence, the doctor needs to evaluate the medical condition and other details of the patient prior to surgery. Remember that the success of the surgery depends on your physical condition and the skills of the surgeon. Complications and errors are not a rare occurrence but such an event gives way to medical malpractice.  So if you face any severe complications that cause loss of income or loss of enjoyment of life, you can file a case against that medical professional. Before understanding the role of an orthopedic expert witness in a shoulder arthroscopy case, below mentioned is a list of things that every surgeon should do before performing surgery.

  • The surgeon must lay emphasis on the risks and benefits of the surgery. The surgeon should provide detailed information on the procedure both in verbal and written forms. This is done to receive consent from the patient.
  • Should remind the patients regarding the delicate procedures involved in the surgery.
  • Make acquainted with the profession and its implications, risks, and expected outcomes, as well as the enormity of an eventual medical error.

If the medical professional deviates from the standards or if they fail to convey all the risks and benefits; or fail to obtain the consent of the patient; then the latter can file a lawsuit and seek compensation for the damages caused to them.

To file a lawsuit, you need to get in touch with an attorney, and the attorney in turn will call upon an orthopedic expert witness to determine if there has been a fault on the part of the surgeon. This is very crucial or else there can be counter-attacks from the defense. At times, the plaintiff can also be penalized for putting in wrong allegations. Therefore, the experts along with the attorney will establish that there has been malpractice. Once evidence is found, the lawsuit will be filed against the surgeon or anyone who is responsible for the injury. An orthopedic expert witness has multiple roles to play and is beneficial to all the parties- plaintiff, the defendant, and the jury. The defendant’s attorney can also appoint an expert witness. The case reviews and the facts prepared by the expert witnesses are produced before the court.

Medical malpractices are highly technical and involve certain complex elements. Neither the jury nor the solicitors have in-depth knowledge of these complex matters and this is when an attorney will call upon an orthopedic expert witness to understand these complex matters. They’ll critically analyze the case and prepare a report based on that. These reports are unbiased and free from any other outer influence. Besides this, there is a deadline within which the case needs to be filed. In California, this deadline is known as the statute of limitations which you’ll get to learn in the next section.

The statute of limitations in California:

 The lawsuit filing has to be done as soon as injuries are found. The official statute of limitations in California is 3 years after the injury and once you file the case, you have 365 days to commence the action. The defendant has to be served a notice by the plaintiff at least 3 months before filing a lawsuit. No letter formatting is needed but certain things have to be laid out:

  • The legal basis of the claim
  • Type of loss claimed
  • Nature of the injuries sustained

However, there are certain exceptions to California’s statute of limitations which has been stated below.

  • Firstly, if the surgeon has left a foreign object inside the patient’s body, then the lawsuit can be filed anytime after the final discovery of the object. Therefore, there will be no such deadline in this matter. For example, if a patient discovers a foreign object after 10 years, the lawsuit can be filed after 10 years. In that case, the patient will get a year’s time from the time of discovery to file the lawsuit.
  • Secondly, if the medical professional commits fraud by trying to fix up the misconduct, then there won’t be any such deadline for the matter.

Importance of seeking legal representation:

Getting your compensation would be a difficult affair especially if you are not familiar with the legal system. But with the help of the right attorneys, you can easily fight your case. Remember that medical malpractice lawsuits will need the guidance of an orthopedic expert witness to under the complex matters. Unless you seek legal representation, you won’t be able to get medico-legal guidance. An experienced attorney can help get your compensation for all the damages caused to you. It includes reimbursement for things like- lost wages, medical bills, transportation costs, pain and suffering, rehabilitation and so much more.

If you believe that there has been injured because of the negligence of the doctor, get in touch with the best lawyers in California as they can represent you in the court with strong facts and arguments. Also, they’ll make the case strong by retaining an orthopedic expert witness to get neutral case reviews. These documents are crucial because the attorney may submit it to the jury. Although the decision of these expert witnesses is not binding, the jury cannot understand the medical complexities without their help. So, retaining a lawyer is a must in a shoulder arthroscopy malpractice case!

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